• नेपाल (Nepali)
  • Nepāl
Motto: जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी (Sanskrit)
Janani Janmabhumishcha Swargadapi Gariyasi
"Mother and Motherland Are Greater Than Heaven"
Anthem: सयौँ थुँगा फूलका (Nepali)
Sayaun Thunga Phulka
"Made of Hundreds of Flowers"
Nepal (orthographic projection).svg
Map of Nepal (Political and Administrative).jpg
Land controlled by Nepal shown in dark green; land claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
and largest city
28°10′N 84°15′E / 28.167°N 84.250°E / 28.167; 84.250Coordinates: 28°10′N 84°15′E / 28.167°N 84.250°E / 28.167; 84.250
Official languagesNepali[2]
Recognised national languagesAll mother-tongues[3][4]
(see Languages of Nepal)
Ethnic groups
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• President
Bidya Devi Bhandari[6]
Nanda Kishor Pun[6]
Sher Bahadur Deuba[6]
Cholendra Shumsher JB Rana[6]
LegislatureFederal Parliament
National Assembly
House of Representatives
• Kingdom
25 September 1768[7]
4 March 1816
21 December 1923
28 May 2008
20 September 2015
• Total
147,516 km2 (56,956 sq mi) (93rd)
• Water (%)
• 2021 estimate
Neutral increase 30,034,989[10][11] (49th)
• 2011 census
• Density
180/km2 (466.2/sq mi) (50th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $122.62 billion[13] (84th)
• Per capita
Increase $4,199[13] (144th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $36.084 billion (98th)
• Per capita
Increase $1,236[13] (158th)
Gini (2010)32.8[14]
medium · 115th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.602[15]
medium · 142nd
CurrencyNepalese rupee (Rs, रू) (NPR)
Time zoneUTC+05:45 (Nepal Standard Time)
DST not observed
Driving sideleft
Calling code+977
ISO 3166 codeNP

Nepal (English: /nɪˈpɔːl/;[16] Nepali: नेपाल [nepal]), formerly the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल),[17] is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is mainly situated in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, bordering Tibet of China to the north, and India in the south, east, and west, while it is narrowly separated from Bangladesh by the Siliguri Corridor, and from Bhutan by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Nepal is a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious and multi-cultural state, with Nepali as the official language. Kathmandu is the nation's capital and the largest city.

The name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient Nepal when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BC, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal. Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, and was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala. The Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional art and architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal. The Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and later formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonised but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951 but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005. The Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the establishment of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy.

The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, affirms the country as a secular federal parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces. Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, and friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), of which it is a founding member. Nepal is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative. The Nepalese Armed Forces are the fifth-largest in South Asia; and are notable for their Gurkha history, particularly during the world wars, and has been a significant contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations.

  1. ^ "Nepal | Facts, History & News". Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  2. ^ "Nepal | Culture, History, & People". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  3. ^ "नेपालको संविधान २०७२" [Constitution of Nepal 2015] (PDF). 20 September 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019 – via Nepal Law Commission.
  4. ^ Mandal, Bidhi; Nayak, Ravi (9 June 2019). "Why English?". Republica. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  5. ^ a b 2011 National Census, p. 4.
  6. ^ a b c d "President Bhandari administers oath of office to Oli". The Rising Nepal. 15 February 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  7. ^ Subba, Sanghamitra (20 December 2019). "A future written in the stars". Nepali Times. Archived from the original on 31 January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  8. ^ The Sugauli Treaty of 1816 rendered moot the degree of independence of Nepal. The sixth point of the treaty directly questions the degree of independence of Nepal. The fact that any differences between Nepal and Sikkim will be "referred to the arbitration of the East India Company" sees Nepal as a semi-independent or a vassal state or tributary of the British empire.
  9. ^ Formal recognition of Nepal as an independent and sovereign state by Great Britain.
  10. ^ ""World Population Prospects 2022"". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  11. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  12. ^ 2011 National Census, p. 1.
  13. ^ a b c "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  14. ^ "Gini Index (World Bank Estimate) – Nepal". World Bank. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  15. ^ "Human Development Report 2019". United Nations Development Programme. 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 May 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  16. ^ "Nepal | Definition of Nepal by Oxford Dictionary on also meaning of Nepal". Lexico Dictionaries | English. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  17. ^ "UNTERM". Retrieved 17 June 2022.

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