Bangladesh

Coordinates: 24°N 90°E / 24°N 90°E / 24; 90

People's Republic of Bangladesh
  • গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ  (Bengali)
  • Gônoprojatontrī Bangladesh
Anthem: "Amar Sonar Bangla" (Bengali)
"My Golden Bengal"
March: "Notuner Gaan"
"The Song of Youth"[1]
National Slogan: "Joy Bangla"
"Victory to Bengal"[2][3]
Official Seal of the Government of Bangladesh
  • Seal of the Government of Bangladesh
Bangladesh (orthographic projection).svg
Capital
and largest city
Dhaka
23°45′50″N 90°23′20″E / 23.76389°N 90.38889°E / 23.76389; 90.38889
Official language
and national language
Bengali[4]
Ethnic groups
(2022[5])
Religion
Demonym(s)Bangladeshi
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary republic
• President
Abdul Hamid
Sheikh Hasina
Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury
Hasan Foez Siddique
LegislatureJatiya Sangsad
Independence 
• Declared
26 March 1971
16 December 1971
16 December 1972
Area
• Total
148,460[7] km2 (57,320 sq mi) (92nd[7])
• Water (%)
6.4
• Land area
130,170 sq Km[7]
• Water area
18,290 sq km[7]
Population
• 2022 estimate
165,650,475[8] (8th)
• 2022 census
165,158,616[9] (8th)
• Density
1,106/km2 (2,864.5/sq mi) (7th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.11 trillion [10] (30th)
• Per capita
Increase $6,633 [10] (165th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $416 billion[11] (41st)
• Per capita
Increase $2,520 [11] (162nd)
Gini (2021)Negative increase 32.4[12]
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.661[13]
medium · 129th
CurrencyTaka () (BDT)
Time zoneUTC+6 (BST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+880
ISO 3166 codeBD
Internet TLD.bd
.বাংলা

Bangladesh (/ˌbæŋɡləˈdɛʃ, ˌbɑːŋ-/;[14] Bengali: বাংলাদেশ, pronounced [ˈbaŋlaˌdeʃ] (listen)), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of either 148,460 square kilometres (57,320 sq mi) or 147,570 square kilometres (56,980 sq mi),[7][15] making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north.[16] Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub. Chittagong, the largest seaport, is the second-largest city. The official language is Bengali, one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family.

Bangladesh forms the sovereign part of the historic and ethnolinguistic region of Bengal, which was divided during the Partition of India in 1947.[17] The country has a Bengali Muslim majority. Ancient Bengal was an important cultural centre in the Indian subcontinent as the home of the states of Vanga, Pundra, Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata, and Harikela. The Mauryan, Gupta, Pala, Sena, Chandra and Deva dynasties were the last pre-Islamic rulers of Bengal. The Muslim conquest of Bengal began in 1204 when Bakhtiar Khalji overran northern Bengal and invaded Tibet. Becoming part of the Delhi Sultanate, three city-states emerged in the 14th century with much of eastern Bengal being ruled from Sonargaon. Sufi missionary leaders like Sultan Balkhi, Shah Jalal and Shah Makhdum Rupos helped in spreading Muslim rule. The region was unified into an independent, unitary Bengal Sultanate. Under Mughal rule, eastern Bengal continued to prosper as the melting pot of Muslims in the eastern subcontinent and attracted traders from around the world. Mughal Bengal became increasingly assertive and independent under the Nawabs of Bengal in the 18th century. In 1757, the betrayal of Mir Jafar resulted in the defeat of Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah to the British East India Company and eventual British dominance across South Asia. The Bengal Presidency grew into the largest administrative unit in British India. The creation of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905 set a precedent for the emergence of Bangladesh. In 1940, the first Prime Minister of Bengal supported the Lahore Resolution with the hope of creating a state in eastern South Asia. Prior to the partition of Bengal, the Prime Minister of Bengal proposed a Bengali sovereign state. A referendum and the announcement of the Radcliffe Line established the present-day territorial boundary of Bangladesh.

In 1947, East Bengal became the most populous province in the Dominion of Pakistan. It was renamed as East Pakistan with Dhaka becoming the country's legislative capital. The Bengali Language Movement in 1952; the East Bengali legislative election, 1954; the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état; the Six point movement of 1966; and the 1970 Pakistani general election resulted in the rise of Bengali nationalism and pro-democracy movements in East Pakistan. The refusal of the Pakistani military junta to transfer power to the Awami League led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman led to the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, in which the Mukti Bahini aided by India waged a successful armed revolution. The conflict saw the 1971 Bangladesh genocide and the massacre of pro-independence Bengali civilians, including intellectuals. The new state of Bangladesh became the first constitutionally secular state in South Asia in 1972.[18] Islam was declared the state religion in 1988.[19][20][21] In 2010, the Bangladesh Supreme Court reaffirmed secular principles in the constitution.[22]

Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic based on the Westminster system. Bengalis make up 99% of the total population of Bangladesh,[23] and the large Muslim population of Bangladesh makes it the third-largest Muslim-majority country. The country consists of eight divisions, 64 districts and 495 subdistricts.[24] It maintains the third-largest military in South Asia after India and Pakistan, and has been a major contributor to UN peacekeeping operations. A middle power in the Indo-Pacific,[25] Bangladesh is an emerging economy ranked as the 41st-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and the 30th-largest by PPP. It hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world due to the Rohingya genocide.[26] Bangladesh faces many challenges, including the adverse effects of climate change,[27] poverty, illiteracy,[28] corruption, demonstrations, and authoritarianism. However, the poverty rate has halved since 2011.[29][30] Once a historic center of the muslin cloth trade, Bangladesh is now one of the world's largest modern garment exporters. Its economy has consistently been among the fastest growing economies in the 21st century.[31]

  1. ^ "National Symbols→National march". Bangladesh Tourism Board. Bangladesh: Ministry of Civil Aviation & Tourism. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2015. In 13 January 1972, the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country's independence.
  2. ^ "'Joy Bangla' to be national slogan: HC". Daily Prothom Alo. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  3. ^ "HC orders govt to announce 'Joy Bangla' as national slogan in three months". bdnews24.com. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Article 3. The state language". The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd. Ministry of Law, The People's Republic of Bangladesh. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  5. ^ "Ethnic population in 2022 census: Real picture not reflected". The Daily Star. 9 August 2022. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  6. ^ "Census 2022: Bangladesh population now 165 million". 27 July 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d e "South Asia :: Bangladesh — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". cia.gov. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  8. ^ "The World Factbook: Bangladesh". Central Intelligence Agency. September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. ^ "জনসংখ্যা সাড়ে ১৬ কোটি, অধিকাংশ নারী, কমেছে হিন্দু জনগোষ্ঠীর হার". BBC News বাংলা.
  10. ^ a b "IMF World Economic Outlook Database April 2022". International Monetary Fund. 28 April 2022.
  11. ^ a b "GDP (current US$) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  12. ^ "Gini Coefficient by Country 2022". World Population Review.
  13. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  14. ^ "Bangladesh". Collins English Dictionary (13th ed.). HarperCollins. 2018. ISBN 978-0-008-28437-4.
  15. ^ বাংলাদেশ পরিসংখ্যান বর্ষগ্রন্থ ২০২০ – Bangladesh Statistics annual book 2020 (PDF). Bangladesh Statistics Bureau. p. 21. ISBN 978-984-475-047-0.
  16. ^ "America should bet on Bangladesh". Tbsnews.net. 4 December 2021. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  17. ^ Frank E. Eyetsemitan; James T. Gire (2003). Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-89789-925-3.
  18. ^ Lailufar Yasmin. "Struggle for the Soul of Bangladesh | Institute for Global Change". Institute.global. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  19. ^ "Bangladesh profile – Timeline". BBC News. 26 February 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  20. ^ Alam, Shah (1991). "The State-Religion Amendment to the Constitution of Bangladesh: A Critique". Verfassung und Recht in Übersee / Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America. 24 (2): 209–225. JSTOR 43110030 – via JSTOR.
  21. ^ "Writ challenging Islam as state religion rejected". The Daily Star. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  22. ^ "Bangladesh" (PDF). U.S. State Department. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  23. ^ Roy, Pinaki; Deshwara, Mintu (9 August 2022). "Ethnic population in 2022 census: Real picture not reflected". The Daily Star. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  24. ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  25. ^ "A rising Bangladesh starts to exert its regional power | The Interpreter". Lowyinstitute.org. 21 February 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  26. ^ Mahmud, Faisal. "Four years on, Rohingya stuck in Bangladesh camps yearn for home | Rohingya News". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  27. ^ Maxwell, David. "Bangladesh, India Most Threatened by Climate Change, Risk Study Finds | National Geographic (blogs)". Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  28. ^ "1 in 4 illiterate in Bangladesh". Dhaka Tribune. 8 September 2019.
  29. ^ "Bangladesh needs continued commitment to democracy, HR for next level dev: US | Independent". m.theindependentbd.com.
  30. ^ "Overview". World Bank.
  31. ^ "The World Bank In Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 30 May 2022.

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