Norway

Coordinates: 61°N 8°E / 61°N 8°E / 61; 8

Kingdom of Norway
Other official names
Motto: Nonea
Anthem: Ja, vi elsker dette landet
(English: "Yes, we love this country")
Royal anthem: Kongesangen
(English: "King's Song")
Europe-Norway (orthographic projection).svg
Europe-Norway.svg
Location of the Kingdom of Norway (green)

in Europe (green and dark grey)

Location of the Kingdom of Norway and its integral overseas territories and dependencies: Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Bouvet Island, Peter I Island, and Queen Maud Land
Capital
and largest city
Oslo
59°56′N 10°41′E / 59.933°N 10.683°E / 59.933; 10.683
Official languages
Recognised national languages
Ethnic groups
Religion
(2021)[9][10]
Demonym(s)Norwegian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Harald V
Jonas Gahr Støre
Masud Gharahkhani
Toril Marie Øie
Legislature
History
872
• Old Kingdom of Norway (Peak extent)
1263
1397
1524
25 February 1814
17 May 1814
4 November 1814
7 June 1905
Area
• Total
385,207 km2 (148,729 sq mi)[12] (61stb)
• Water (%)
5.32 (2015)[13]
Population
• 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 5,425,270[14][15] (118th)
• Density
14.0/km2 (36.3/sq mi) (213th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase$423 billion[16] (51st)
• Per capita
Increase$67,987 [16] (7th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase$541 billion[16] (27th)
• Per capita
Increase$99,491[16] (3rd)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 25.3[17]
low
HDI (2021)Increase 0.961[18]
very high · 2nd
CurrencyNorwegian krone (NOK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+47
ISO 3166 codeNO
Internet TLD.nod
  1. The country has no official motto, but the oath from the 1814 Norwegian Constituent Assembly can be regarded as the closest unofficial equivalent:
    Enige og tro inntil Dovre faller (Bokmål)
    Einige og tru inntil Dovre fell (Nynorsk)
    "United and loyal until Dovre falls"
  2. Includes the mainland, Svalbard and Jan Mayen.[12] (Without the integral territories, it is the 67th largest country at 323,802[19] square kilometres)
  3. This percentage is for the mainland, Svalbard, and Jan Mayen. This percentage counts glaciers as "land". It's calculated as 19,940.14/(365,246.17+19,940.14).[citation needed]
  4. Two more TLDs have been assigned, but are not used: .sj for Svalbard and Jan Mayen; .bv for Bouvet Island.

Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,[a] is a Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The remote Arctic island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard also form part of Norway.[note 5] Bouvet Island, located in the Subantarctic, is a dependency of Norway; it also lays claims to the Antarctic territories of Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land. The capital and largest city in Norway is Oslo.

Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres (148,729 sq mi)[12] and had a population of 5,425,270 in January 2022.[14] The country shares a long eastern border with Sweden at a length of 1,619 km (1,006 mi). It is bordered by Finland and Russia to the northeast and the Skagerrak strait to the south, on the other side of which are Denmark and the United Kingdom. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. The maritime influence dominates Norway's climate, with mild lowland temperatures on the sea coasts; the interior, while colder, is also significantly milder than areas elsewhere in the world on such northerly latitudes. Even during polar night in the north, temperatures above freezing are commonplace on the coastline. The maritime influence brings high rainfall and snowfall to some areas of the country.

Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Jonas Gahr Støre has been prime minister since 2021, replacing Erna Solberg. As a unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution. The kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of many petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,150 years. From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark–Norway, and, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War and remained so until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany until the end of World War II.

Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities. The Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the European Union and the United States. Norway is also a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, and the Nordic Council; a member of the European Economic Area, the WTO, and the OECD; and a part of the Schengen Area. In addition, the Norwegian languages share mutual intelligibility with Danish and Swedish.

Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, and its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals.[21] The Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, minerals, lumber, seafood, and fresh water. The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product (GDP).[22] On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East.[23][24]

The country has the fourth-highest per-capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists.[25] On the CIA's GDP (PPP) per capita list (2015 estimate) which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven.[26] It has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion.[27] Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position also held previously between 2001 and 2006;[28] it also has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking per 2018.[29] Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017[30] and currently ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Freedom Index,[31] and the Democracy Index.[32] Norway also has one of the lowest crime rates in the world.[33]

Although the majority of Norway's population is ethnic Norwegian, in the 21st century immigration has accounted for more than half of population growth; in 2021, the five largest minority groups in the country were the descendants of Polish, Lithuanian, Somali, Pakistani, and Swedish immigrants.[7]


Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference LanguageCouncilSami was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ "Minoritetsspråk". Språkrådet.
  3. ^ "Immigrants and their children as of 1 January 2020". Statistics Norway. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  4. ^ "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents". Statistics Norway. 9 March 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  5. ^ kirkedepartementet, Fornyings-, administrasjons- og (16 June 2006). "Samer". Regjeringen.no.
  6. ^ inkluderingsdepartementet, Arbeids- og (16 June 2006). "Nasjonale minoriteter". Regjeringen.no.
  7. ^ a b "05183: Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, by sex and country background 1970 – 2021-PX-Web SSB". SSB.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ "The Constitution of Norway, Article 16 (English translation, published by the Norwegian Parliament)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 September 2015.
  9. ^ Church of Norway Statistics Norway 15 June 2021
  10. ^ Members of religious and life stance communities outside the Church of Norway, by religion/life stance. Statistics Norway 27 September 2021
  11. ^ "The Re-establishing of a Norwegian State". regjeringen.no. 5 July 2020.
  12. ^ a b c "Arealstatistics for Norway 2019". Kartverket, mapping directory for Norway. 20 December 2019. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  13. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  14. ^ a b "Population 1 January 2022". Statistics Norway. 24 January 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  15. ^ "Population". SSB.
  16. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. April 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  17. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  18. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  19. ^ "Norway". CIA World fact. 26 October 2021.
  20. ^ National Research Council (U.S.). Polar Research Board (1986). Antarctic treaty system: an assessment. Science of the Total Environment. Vol. 61. National Academies Press. pp. 260–261. Bibcode:1987ScTEn..61..260B. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(87)90375-5. ISBN 978-0309036405. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  21. ^ Norway, Study in. "Norwegian Society / Living in Norway / StudyinNorway / Home – Study in Norway". www.studyinnorway.no. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  22. ^ "Statistics Norway raises '07 GDP outlook, cuts '08". Reuters. 6 September 2007. Retrieved 8 March 2009.
  23. ^ "Country Comparison :: Crude oil – production". CIA – The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  24. ^ "Country Comparison :: Natural gas – production". CIA – The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  25. ^ "The World's Richest Countries". forbes.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  26. ^ "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency Library. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 24 April 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  27. ^ Holter, Mikael (27 June 2017). "The World's Biggest Wealth Fund Hits $1 Trillion". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  28. ^ "Human development indices 2008" (PDF). Human Development Report. hdr.undp.org. 18 December 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
  29. ^ "Human Development Report 2019: Beyond income, beyond averages, beyond today: Inequalities in human development in the 21st century" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. p. 22. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  30. ^ Rankin, Jennifer (20 March 2017). "Happiness is on the wane in the US, UN global report finds". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  31. ^ "Countries and Territories". Freedom House.
  32. ^ "Democracy Index 2016". eiu.com. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  33. ^ "Norway has another year with few murders". www.thelocal.no. 5 January 2016. Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 4 September 2019.


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