Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese
Native toMainland China, Taiwan, Singapore
Native speakers
Has begun acquiring native speakers (as of 1988);[1][2]
L1 & L2 speakers: 80% of China[3]
Early form
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Mainland Chinese Braille
Taiwanese Braille
Two-Cell Chinese Braille
Signed Chinese[4]
Official status
Official language in
Regulated byNational Language Regulating Committee (China)[6]
National Languages Committee (Taiwan)
Promote Mandarin Council (Singapore)
Chinese Language Standardisation Council (Malaysia)
Language codes
ISO 639-3
ISO 639-6
  • goyu (Guoyu)
  • huyu (Huayu)
  • cosc (Putonghua)
GlottologNone
Mandarin sphere.svg
Countries where Standard Chinese is spoken
  Statutory or de facto national working language
  Statutory or de facto national working language
  More than 1,000,000 L1 and L2 speakers
  More than 500,000 speakers
  More than 100,000 speakers
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Common name in mainland China
Traditional Chinese普通話
Simplified Chinese普通话
Literal meaningCommon speech
Common name in Taiwan
Traditional Chinese國語
Simplified Chinese国语
Literal meaningNational language
Common name in Singapore and Southeast Asia
Traditional Chinese華語
Simplified Chinese华语
Literal meaningChinese language

Standard Chinese (simplified Chinese: 现代标准汉语; traditional Chinese: 現代標準漢語; pinyin: Xiàndài biāozhǔn hànyǔ; lit. 'modern standard Han speech')—in linguistics Standard Northern Mandarin[7][8][9] or Standard Beijing Mandarin,[10][11] in common speech simply Mandarin,[12] better qualified as Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin or Standard Mandarin Chinese—is a modern standardized form of Mandarin Chinese that was first developed during the Republican Era (1912‒1949). It is designated as the official language of mainland China and a major language in the United Nations, Singapore, and Taiwan. It is largely based on the Beijing dialect. Standard Chinese is a pluricentric language with local standards in mainland China, Taiwan and Singapore that mainly differ in their lexicon.[13] Hong Kong written Chinese, used for formal written communication in Hong Kong and Macau, is a form of Standard Chinese that is read aloud with the Cantonese reading of characters.

Like other Sinitic languages, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object (SVO) word order. Compared with southern Chinese varieties, the language has fewer vowels, final consonants and tones, but more initial consonants. It is an analytic language, albeit with many compound words.

  1. ^ Norman (1988), pp. 251.
  2. ^ Liang (2014), p. 45.
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Over 80 percent of Chinese population speak Mandarin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Tai, James; Tsay, Jane (2015). Sign Languages of the World: A Comparative Handbook. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 772. ISBN 9781614518174. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  5. ^ "Languages of ASEAN". Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  6. ^ http://www.china-language.gov.cn/ Archived 18 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Chinese)
  7. ^ Rohsenow, John S. (2004). "Fifty Years of Script and Written Language Reform in the P.R.C.". In Zhou, Minglang (ed.). Language Policy in the People's Republic of China. pp. 22, 24. ISBN 9781402080395. accurately represent and express the sounds of standard Northern Mandarin (Putonghua) [...]. Central to the promotion of Putonghua as a national language with a standard pronunciation as well as to assisting literacy in the non-phonetic writing system of Chinese characters was the development of a system of phonetic symbols with which to convey the pronunciation of spoken words and written characters in standard northern Mandarin.
  8. ^ Ran, Yunyun; Weijer, Jeroen van de (2016). "On L2 English Intonation Patterns by Mandarin and Shanghainese Speakers: A Pilot Study". In Sloos, Marjoleine; Weijer, Jeroen van de (eds.). Proceedings of the second workshop "Chinese Accents and Accented Chinese" (2nd CAAC) 2016, at the Nordic Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, 26-27 October 2015 (PDF). p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2016. We recorded a number of English sentences spoken by speakers with Mandarin Chinese (standard northern Mandarin) as their first language and by Chinese speakers with Shanghainese as their first language, [...]
  9. ^ Bradley, David (2008). "Chapter 5: East and Southeast Asia". In Moseley, Christopher (ed.). Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages. Routledge. p. 500 (e-book). ISBN 9781135796402. As a result of the spread of standard northern Mandarin and major regional varieties of provincial capitals since 1950, many of the smaller tuyu [土語] are disappearing by being absorbed into larger regional fangyan [方言], which of course may be a sub-variety of Mandarin or something else.
  10. ^ Siegel, Jeff (2003). "Chapter 8: Social Context". In Doughty, Catherine J.; Long, Michael H. (eds.). The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Blackwell Publishing, U.K. p. 201. ISBN 9781405151887. Escure [Geneviève Escure, 1997] goes on to analyse second dialect texts of Putonghua (standard Beijing Mandarin Chinese) produced by speakers of other varieties of Chinese, [in] Wuhan and Suzhou.
  11. ^ Chen, Ying-Chuan (2013). Becoming Taiwanese: Negotiating Language, Culture and Identity (PDF) (Thesis). University of Ottawa. p. 300. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2020. [...] a consistent gender pattern found across all the age cohorts is that women were more concerned about their teachers' bad Mandarin pronunciation, and implied that it was an inferior form of Mandarin, which signified their aspiration to speak standard Beijing Mandarin, the good version of the language.
  12. ^ Weng, Jeffrey (2018). "What is Mandarin? The social project of language standardization in early Republican China". The Journal of Asian Studies. 59 (1): 611–633. doi:10.1017/S0021911818000487. in common usage, 'Mandarin' or 'Mandarin Chinese' usually refers to China's standard spoken language. In fact, I would argue that this is the predominant meaning of the word
  13. ^ Bradley (1992), p. 307.

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