Chinese language

Chinese
汉语/漢語, Hànyǔ or 中文, Zhōngwén
Chineselanguage.svg
Hànyǔ written in traditional (top) and simplified characters (middle); Zhōngwén (bottom)
Native toSinophone world
Native speakers
1.35 billion (2022)
Early forms
Standard forms
Dialects
Chinese characters
(Traditional/Simplified)

Transcriptions:
Zhuyin
Pinyin (Latin)
Xiao'erjing (Arabic)
Dungan (Cyrillic)
Chinese Braille
ʼPhags-pa script (Historical)
Official status
Official language in
Regulated byMinistry of Education (in the reserved name of "National Commission on Language and Script Work") (Mainland China)
National Languages Committee (Taiwan)
Civil Service Bureau (Hong Kong)
Education and Youth Affairs Bureau (Macau)
Chinese Language Standardisation Council (Malaysia)
Promote Mandarin Council (Singapore)
Language codes
ISO 639-1zh
ISO 639-2chi (B)
zho (T)
ISO 639-3zho – inclusive code
Individual codes:
cdo – Min Dong
cjy – Jinyu
cmn – Mandarin
cpx – Pu-Xian Min
czh – Huizhou
czo – Central Min
gan – Gan
hak – Hakka
hsn – Xiang
mnp – Min Bei
nan – Min Nan
wuu – Wu
yue – Yue
csp – Southern Pinghua
cnp – Northern Pinghua
och – Old Chinese
ltc – Late Middle Chinese
lzh – Classical Chinese
Glottologsini1245
Linguasphere79-AAA
Map-Sinophone World.png
Map of the Chinese-speaking world.
  Countries and regions with a native Chinese-speaking majority.
  Countries and regions where Chinese is not native but an official or educational language.
  Countries with significant Chinese-speaking minorities.
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Han language (general or spoken)
Simplified Chinese汉语
Traditional Chinese漢語
Literal meaningHan people/dynasty's language
Chinese text (especially written)
Chinese中文
Literal meaningChinese ("middle/central") text (or writing)
Han text (especially written and when distinguished from other languages of China)
Simplified Chinese汉文
Traditional Chinese漢文
Literal meaningHan text (or writing)

Chinese (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyin: Hànyǔ[b] or also 中文; Zhōngwén,[c] especially for the written language) is a group of languages that form the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages family, spoken by the ethnic Han Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in Greater China. About 1.3 billion people (or approximately 16% of the world's population) speak a variety of Chinese as their first language.[1]

The spoken varieties of Chinese are usually considered by native speakers to be variants of a single language. However, their lack of mutual intelligibility means they are sometimes considered separate languages in a family.[d] Investigation of the historical relationships among the varieties of Chinese is ongoing. Currently, most classifications posit 7 to 13 main regional groups based on phonetic developments from Middle Chinese, of which the most spoken by far is Mandarin (with about 800 million speakers, or 66%), followed by Min (75 million, e.g. Southern Min), Wu (74 million, e.g. Shanghainese), and Yue (68 million, e.g. Cantonese).[3] These branches are unintelligible to each other, and many of their subgroups are unintelligible with the other varieties within the same branch (e.g. Southern Min). There are, however, transitional areas where varieties from different branches share enough features for some limited intelligibility, including New Xiang with Southwest Mandarin, Xuanzhou Wu with Lower Yangtze Mandarin, Jin with Central Plains Mandarin and certain divergent dialects of Hakka with Gan (though these are unintelligible with mainstream Hakka). All varieties of Chinese are tonal to at least some degree, and are largely analytic.

The earliest Chinese written records are Shang dynasty-era oracle bone inscriptions, which can be dated to 1250 BCE. The phonetic categories of Old Chinese can be reconstructed from the rhymes of ancient poetry. During the Northern and Southern dynasties period, Middle Chinese went through several sound changes and split into several varieties following prolonged geographic and political separation. Qieyun, a rime dictionary, recorded a compromise between the pronunciations of different regions. The royal courts of the Ming and early Qing dynasties operated using a koiné language (Guanhua) based on Nanjing dialect of Lower Yangtze Mandarin.

Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin), based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin, was adopted in the 1930s and is now an official language of both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan), one of the four official languages of Singapore, and one of the six official languages of the United Nations. The written form, using the logograms known as Chinese characters, is shared by literate speakers of mutually unintelligible dialects. Since the 1950s, simplified Chinese characters have been promoted for use by the government of the People's Republic of China, while Singapore officially adopted simplified characters in 1976. Traditional characters remain in use in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and other countries with significant overseas Chinese speaking communities such as Malaysia (which although adopted simplified characters as the de facto standard in the 1980s, traditional characters still remain in widespread use).


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  1. ^ "Summary by language size". Ethnologue. 3 October 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  2. ^ Mair (1991), pp. 10, 21.
  3. ^ Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012), pp. 3, 125.

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