Coordinates: 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44

Republic of Iraq
  • جمهورية العراق (Arabic)
    Jumhūriīyet al-ʿIrāq
  • کۆماری عێراق (Kurdish)
    Komarî Êraq
Anthem: موطني
"My Homeland"
Location of Iraq
and largest city
33°20′N 44°23′E / 33.333°N 44.383°E / 33.333; 44.383
Official languages
  • Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• President
Barham Salih
Mustafa Al-Kadhimi
• Speaker
Mohamed al-Halbousi
Medhat al-Mahmoud
LegislatureCouncil of Representatives
3 October 1932
14 July 1958
15 October 2005
• Total
438,317 km2 (169,235 sq mi) (58th)
• Water (%)
4.62 (as of 2015)[4]
• 2022 estimate
Increase 44,222,503[5] (36th)
• Density
82.7/km2 (214.2/sq mi) (125th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $512.926 billion[6] (48th)
• Per capita
Increase $12,141[7] (114th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $297.341 billion[7] (47th)
• Per capita
Increase $7,038 [8] (111th)
HDI (2019)Increase 0.674[9]
medium · 123rd
CurrencyIraqi dinar (IQD)
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+964
ISO 3166 codeIQ
  1. Constitution of Iraq, Article 4 (1st).

Iraq (Arabic: الْعِرَاق, romanizedal-ʿIrāq; Kurdish: عێراق, romanized: Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق Jumhūriīyet al-ʿIrāq; Kurdish: کۆماری عێراق, romanized: Komarî Êraq), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, the Persian Gulf and Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital and largest city is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Iraqi Arabs, Kurds, Turkmens, Assyrians, Armenians, Yazidis, Mandaeans, Persians and Shabakis with similarly diverse geography and wildlife. The vast majority of the country's 44 million residents are Muslims – the notable other faiths are Christianity, Yazidism, Mandaeism, Yarsanism and Zoroastrianism.[10][2] The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish; others also recognised in specific regions are Neo-Aramaic, Turkish and Armenian.[11]

Starting as early as the 6th millennium BC, the fertile alluvial plains between Iraq's Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, referred to as Mesopotamia, gave rise to some of the world's earliest cities, civilisations, and empires, including those of Akkad, Babylon, Assyria and Sumer.[12] Mesopotamia was a "Cradle of Civilisation" that saw the independent development of a writing system, mathematics, timekeeping, a calendar, astrology, and a law code.[13][14][15] Following the Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia, Baghdad became the capital and the largest city of the Abbasid Caliphate, and during the Islamic Golden Age, the city evolved into a significant cultural and intellectual center, and garnered it a worldwide reputation for its academic institutions, including House of Wisdom.[16] The city was largely destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258 during the Siege of Baghdad, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues and multiple successive empires.

Modern Iraq dates back to 1920, when the British Mandate for Mesopotamia, joining three Ottoman vilayets, was created under the authority of the League of Nations. A British-backed Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq. The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.[17] Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. In 1980, Iraq invaded Iran, sparking a protracted war which would last for almost eight years, and end in a stalemate with devastating losses for both countries. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005. The US presence in Iraq ended in 2011.[18]

Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic. The president is the head of state, the prime minister is the head of government, and the constitution provides for two deliberative bodies, the Council of Representatives and the Council of Union. The judiciary is free and independent of the executive and the legislature.[19]

Iraq is considered an emerging middle power[20] with a strategic location[21] and a founding member of the United Nations, the OPEC as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF. From 1920 to 2005 Iraq experienced spells of significant economic and military growth and briefer instability including wars. The present era has seen further growth and steadier international investment under the multipartite system incepted in 2005 then a major decline in factional domestic, almost randomised, attacks besetting Iraq during and around the time of the US military presence, however recurrent failure to agree working government between members of parliament has been accompanied by politically motivated violence against government institutions, and sometimes beyond.

  1. ^ a b "Iraq, Ministry of Interior – General Directorate for Nationality: Iraqi Constitution (2005)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2011.
  2. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ "Iraqi religions". OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM. 12 May 2021. The constitution establishes Islam as the official religion and states no law may be enacted contradicting the “established provisions of Islam.” It provides for freedom of religious belief and practice for all individuals, including Muslims, Christians, Yezidis, and Sabean-Mandeans, but does not explicitly mention followers of other religions or atheists.
  4. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  5. ^ "Population, total – Iraq | Data".
  6. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022".
  7. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022".
  8. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022".
  9. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  10. ^ Office, Great Britain Foreign (1958). Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1919-1939. H.M. Stationery Office.
  11. ^ "Iraq's Constitution" (PDF).
  12. ^ Keith Maisels, Charles (1993). The Near East: The archaeology in the "Cradle of Civilization". Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-04742-5.
  13. ^ "Iraq | History, Map, Flag, Population, & Facts | Britannica". Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  14. ^ "Mesopotamian Inventions". World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  15. ^ "Mesopotamia". World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  16. ^ Gutas, Dimitri (1998). Greek Thought, Arabic Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early Abbasid Society (2nd/8th-10th Centures). London: Routledge.
  17. ^ Hunt, Courtney (2005). The History of Iraq. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33414-6.
  18. ^ Basu, Moni (18 December 2011). "Deadly Iraq war ends with exit of last U.S. troops". Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  19. ^ "Iraq – Government and society | Britannica". Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  20. ^ "A Balancing Act | Strategic Monitor 2018–2019". Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  21. ^ "Iraq – The northeast | Britannica". Retrieved 5 January 2022.

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