Turkey

Republic of Türkiye
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti  (Turkish)
Flag of Turkey
Anthem: 
İstiklal Marşı  (Turkish)
"The Independence March"
Location of Turkey
CapitalAnkara
39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35Coordinates: 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35
Largest cityIstanbul
41°1′N 28°57′E / 41.017°N 28.950°E / 41.017; 28.950
Official languagesTurkish[1][2]
Spoken languages[3]
Other languages
Ethnic groups
(2016)[4]
Religion
See Religion in Turkey
Demonym(s)
  • Turkish
  • Turk
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Fuat Oktay
Mustafa Şentop
LegislatureGrand National Assembly
Establishment
c. 1299
19 May 1919
23 April 1920
24 July 1923
29 October 1923
9 November 1982[5]
Area
• Total
783,356 km2 (302,455 sq mi) (36th)
• Water (%)
2.03 (as of 2015)[6]
Population
• 31 December 2021 estimate
Neutral increase 84,680,273[7] (18th)
• Density
110[7]/km2 (284.9/sq mi) (107th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $3.21 trillion[8] (11th)
• Per capita
Increase $37,488[8] (46th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Decrease $692 billion[8] (23rd)
• Per capita
Decrease $8,080[8] (87th)
Gini (2019)Steady 41.9[9]
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.838[10]
very high · 48th
CurrencyTurkish lira () (TRY)
Time zoneUTC+3 (TRT)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+90
ISO 3166 codeTR
Internet TLD.tr

Turkey or Türkiye,[a] officially the Republic of Türkiye,[b] is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. It shares borders with the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east; Iraq to the southeast; Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest. Cyprus is located off the south coast. Turks form the vast majority of the nation's population and Kurds are the largest minority.[4] Ankara is Turkey's capital, while Istanbul is its largest city and financial centre.

One of the world's earliest permanently settled regions, present-day Turkey was home to important Neolithic sites like Göbekli Tepe, and was inhabited by ancient civilisations including the Hattians, Hittites, Anatolian peoples, Mycenaean Greeks, Persians and others.[11][12][13][14] Following the conquests of Alexander the Great which started the Hellenistic period, most of the ancient regions in modern Turkey were culturally Hellenised, which continued during the Byzantine era.[12][15] The Seljuk Turks began migrating in the 11th century, and the Sultanate of Rum ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities.[16] Beginning in the late 13th century, the Ottomans united the principalities and conquered the Balkans, and the Turkification of Anatolia increased during the Ottoman period. After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire became a global power.[11][17][18] From the late 18th century onwards, the empire's power declined with a gradual loss of territories.[19] Mahmud II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century.[20] The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 restricted the authority of the Sultan and restored the Ottoman Parliament after a 30-year suspension, ushering the empire into a multi-party period.[21][22] The 1913 coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas, who facilitated the Empire's entry into World War I as part of the Central Powers in 1914. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Greek and Assyrian subjects.[c][25] After its defeat in the war, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned.[26]

The Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allied Powers resulted in the abolition of the Sultanate on 1 November 1922, the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne (which superseded the Treaty of Sèvres) on 24 July 1923 and the proclamation of the Republic on 29 October 1923. With the reforms initiated by the country's first president, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Turkey became a secular, unitary and parliamentary republic. Turkey played a prominent role in the Korean War and joined NATO in 1952. The country endured several military coups in the latter half of the 20th century. The economy was liberalised in the 1980s, leading to stronger economic growth and political stability. The parliamentary republic was replaced with a presidential system by referendum in 2017.

Turkey is a regional power and a newly industrialized country,[27] with a geopolitically strategic location.[28] Its economy, which is classified among the emerging and growth-leading economies, is the twenty third -largest in the world by nominal GDP, and the eleventh-largest by PPP. It is a charter member of the United Nations, an early member of NATO, the IMF, and the World Bank, and a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC, and G20. After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995, and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005. Turkey has a rich cultural legacy shaped by centuries of history and the influence of the various peoples that have inhabited its territory over several millennia; it is home to 19 UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is among the most visited countries in the world.

  1. ^ "Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası" (in Turkish). Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Archived from the original on 1 July 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2020. 3. Madde: Devletin Bütünlüğü, Resmi Dili, Bayrağı, Milli Marşı ve Başkenti: Türkiye Devleti, ülkesi ve milletiyle bölünmez bir bütündür. Dili Türkçedir. Bayrağı, şekli kanununda belirtilen, beyaz ay yıldızlı al bayraktır. Milli marşı "İstiklal Marşı" dır. Başkenti Ankara'dır.
  2. ^ "Mevzuat: Anayasa" (in Turkish). Ankara: Constitutional Court of Turkey. Archived from the original on 1 July 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  3. ^ Ethnologue: Ethnologue Languages of the World – Turkey, Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Turkey". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Constitution2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  7. ^ a b "The Results of Address Based Population Registration System, 2021". Turkish Statistical Institute. 4 February 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  8. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". Imf. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  9. ^ "Gini index (World Bank estimate) – Turkey". World Bank. 2019. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  10. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  11. ^ a b Howard, Douglas Arthur (2001). The History of Turkey. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-313-30708-9.
  12. ^ a b Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BC). Oxford University Press. pp. 3–11, 37. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  13. ^ Casson, Lionel (1977). "The Thracians" (PDF). The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. 35 (1): 2–6. doi:10.2307/3258667. JSTOR 3258667. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  14. ^ Edwards, Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen (1977). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 184, 787. ISBN 978-0-521-08691-2.
  15. ^ David Noel Freedman; Allen C. Myers; Astrid Biles Beck (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-8028-2400-4. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  16. ^ Mehmet Fuat Köprülü&Gary Leiser. The origins of the Ottoman Empire. p. 33.
  17. ^ Masters, Bruce (2013). The Arabs of the Ottoman Empire, 1516–1918: A Social and Cultural History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-03363-4.
  18. ^ Somel, Selcuk Aksin (2010). The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-1-4617-3176-4.
  19. ^ Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Veselin Zakhariev; Popov, Veselin; Descartes), Centre de recherches tsiganes (Université René (2001). Gypsies in the Ottoman Empire: A Contribution to the History of the Balkans. Univ of Hertfordshire Press. ISBN 978-1-902806-02-0.
  20. ^ Roderic. H. Davison, Essays in Ottoman and Turkish History, 1774-1923 – The Impact of West, Texas 1990, pp. 115-116.
  21. ^ Zürcher, Erik Jan (2004). Turkey: A Modern History. London: I. B. Tauris. pp. 93–5.
  22. ^ Shaw and Shaw, Stanford J. and Ezel Kural (1977). History of The Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey Vol. II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 274–9, 282–7.
  23. ^ "Erdogan: Turkey will 'never accept' genocide charges". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  24. ^ Tatz, Colin; Higgins, Winton (2016). The Magnitude of Genocide. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-4408-3161-4.
  25. ^ Schaller, Dominik J.; Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008). "Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies—introduction". Journal of Genocide Research. 10 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1080/14623520801950820. ISSN 1462-3528. S2CID 71515470.
  26. ^ Roderic H. Davison; Review "From Paris to Sèvres: The Partition of the Ottoman Empire at the Peace Conference of 1919–1920" by Paul C. Helmreich in Slavic Review, Vol. 34, No. 1 (March 1975), pp. 186–187
  27. ^ "From Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  28. ^ "The Political Economy of Regional Power: Turkey" (PDF). giga-hamburg.de. Retrieved 18 February 2015.


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